Rosa Bonheur Biography
Rosa Bonheur, born Marie-Rosalie Bonheur, (16 March 1822 ~ 25 May 1899) was a French animaliere, realist artist, and sculptor. She was the most popular artist of nineteenth-century France, Rosa Bonheur was also one of the first renowned painters of animals and the first woman awarded the Grand Cross by the French Legion of Honor. A professional artist with a successful career, Bonheur lived in two consecutive committed relationships with women. As a painter she became famous primarily for two chief works, Ploughing in the Nivernais (in french, Le labourage nivernais, le sombrage), which was first exhibited at the Salon of 1848, and is now in the MusEe d'Orsay in Paris depicts a team of oxen ploughing a field while attended by peasants set against a vast pastoral landscape; and, The Horse Fair (in French, Le marchE aux chevaux) (which was exhibited at the Salon of 1853 (finished in 1855) and is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in New York City. Bonheur is widely considered to have been the most famous female painter of the nineteenth century. Rosa Bonheur oil painting reproductions.
Although she was sent to school like her brothers, she was a disruptive force in the classroom and was consequently expelled from numerous schools. Finally, after trying to apprentice her to a seamstress Raimond agreed to take her education as a painter upon himself. She was twelve at that point and would have been too young to attend the Ecole des Beaux-Arts even if they had accepted women. Rosa Bonheur oil painting reproductions. As was traditional in the art schools of the period, Bonheur began her artistic training by copying images from drawing books and by sketching from plaster models. As her training progressed she began to make studies of domesticated animals from life, to include horses, sheep, cows, goats, rabbits and other animals in the pastures on the perimeter of Paris, the open fields of Villiersdisambiguation needed and the (then) still-wild Bois de Boulogne. At age fourteen she began to copy from paintings at the Louvre. Among her favorite painters were Nicholas Poussin and Peter Paul Rubens, but she also copied the paintings of Paulus Potter, Porbus, Louis LEopold Robert, Salvatore Rosa and Karel Dujardin. Rosa Bonheur oil painting reproductions.
She also studied animal anatomy and osteology by visiting the abattoirs of Paris and by performing dissections of animals at the Ecole nationale vEtErinaire d'Alfort, the National Veterinary Institute in Paris. Rosa Bonheur oil painting reproductions. There she prepared detailed studies which she would later use as references for her paintings and sculptures. During this period, too, she also met and became friends with the father and son comparative anatomists and zoologists Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire by whom her father was employed to create natural history illustrations.